100 Years Ago Today

A History Of Events And Happenings From Exactly One Hundred Years Ago

Mongolia and Tibet Sign Mutual Defense Treaty

Since 1813 Central Asia had been a area contested by England and Russia. While the conflict had been focused on Afghanistan in the 19th century by 1900 the contested area moved eastwards to Mongolia and Tibet. The British were afraid of a Russian invasion of their crown colony of India and also feared China as well. In 1902 the British Viceroy of India sent Major Francis Younghusband on an expedition to Tibet to settle a border dispute. This invasion led to a massacre where more than 5,000 Tibetans may have been killed against British casualties of five. Russia sent a secret agent to China to collect intelligence on the prospect of instituting reform and modernization. In 1907 the Anglo-Russian Agreement of  saw the two empires form an alliance to protect their regional interests against the growing strength and influence of Germany. Russia began to encourage Mongolian moves against China.

With the Chinese Revolution of October 1911 Mongol princes declared Mongolia’s independence from China. Russia provided the Mongols 15,000 rifles, 15,000 sabers and 7.5 million cartridges. In November 1912 Russia signed an agreement with Mongolia pledging to maintain Mongolia’s autonomy. Through its relationship with Mongolia Russia would be able to exercise direct influence in Tibetan affairs. Because Tibet was considered a buffer state situated on India’s northern frontier, Britain viewed Russia’s support for Mongolian autonomy as an attempt to expand Russian influence in the region and therefore a potential threat to their colonial interests there such as India and Afghanistan.

On January 11, 1913 Tibet and Mongolia signed a mutual defense treaty in which they proclaimed their independence from China. 19130111(4) Tibet and Mongolia “from now and for all time afford each other assistance against external dangers.”

Winter Fire In Canada

On January 11, 1913 fire engulfed the Enderton Block southwest corner of Hargrave Street and Portage Avenue – Winnipeg, Canada. Winter weather froze the water that put out the fire.

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Advertised January 11, 1913

William Vincent Cahill was born in Syracuse, New York in 1878. He began his studies of art at the Art Students League in New York learning from Howard Pyle and then went on to study in Boston, Massachusetts. He moved to New York and is a successful illustrator for magazines and advertisers.

Tom Amidon was the head miller for a small grain mill in North Dakota. In 1893 the mill was on the verge of closing when when Amidon who had begun making a wheat-based hot breakfast cereal for his family, suggested to the other millers that they try selling it. Amidon coined the porridge Cream of Wheat because it was made from the “cream of the crop.” The product made its debut at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois.  The cereal became very popular. In 1900 boxes featured the image of a African-American chef  named Rastus developed by artist Edward V Brewer.  It has been suggested that  a chef named Frank L White from a popular Chicago restaurant was photographed in 1900 and was the model for Rastus.

In the January 11, 1913 issue of THE SATURDAY EVENING POST, an advertisement for Cream Of Wheat appeared with artwork by William V Cahill.

"Breakfast's Ready Li'l Missy"

“Breakfast’s Ready Li’l Missy”

Parfums Lubin is one of the oldest perfume manufacturers in the world.  Pierre Francois Lubin founded the company in 1798 and his fragrances won over the Imperial Court and was worn by the likes of Josephine Bonaparte. When the Bourbons were restored, Lubin dedicated his fragrances to Queen Marie-Amelie. Eventually Lubin’s perfumes were worn by all the crowned heads of Europe, and were imported to America in 1830.

In the January 11, 1913 issue of LA VIE PARISIANNE, Parfum Lubin advertised it’s new scent – “Chrysantheme” with an alluring exotic nude.

19130111(2B)

 

 

 

Issued January 11, 1913

Since 1902 COLLIERS WEEKLY magazine has had a yearly Automobile Number highlighting the latest developments in automotive design. It has been singularly helpful in promoting the fledgling industry. The 1913 offering is presented in it’s own separate Automotive section.

19130111CW

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN featured a color cover showing the assembly of automobiles. The contents focused on the automobile industry including many photos and related car ads.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICANJanuary 11, 1913

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
January 11, 1913

Robert Robinson was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania in 1886. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and from 1909 to 1912 with the famous illustrator, Howard Pyle. He moved to New York to be near magazine publishers and helped originate the Saturday Evening Post’s “Slice of Life” style of cover art. Robinson’s typical work focused on rural men “old geezer” types. On January 11, 1913 Robinson featured his “old man” taking the grandma on a fast ride in an automobile.

SATURDAY EVENING POSTJanuary 11, 1913

SATURDAY EVENING POST
January 11, 1913

 

 

Two Psychologists End Their Friendship

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Sigmund Freud was born in Pribor, Moravia in the Austrian Empire in May 1856. After moving to Vienna, Austria Freud excelled at school and entered the University of Vienna at age 17.He graduated with an MD in 1881. In October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcot, a renowned neurologist who was conducting scientific research into hypnosis. Charcot specialized in the study of hysteria and susceptibility to hypnosis, which he frequently demonstrated with patients on stage in front of an audience. Freud began using hypnosis in his clinical work. One particular patient was invited to talk about her symptoms whilst under hypnosis. This led Freud to encourage patients to talk freely about whatever ideas or memories occurred to them without recourse to hypnosis. He also started to interpret their dreams. In 1899 he published The Interpretation of Dreams which introduced the concept of the Unconscious.

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Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, Thurgau, Switzerland in July 1875. In 1895, Jung studied medicine at the University of Basel. In 1900, he began working in a psychiatric hospital in Zurich. In 1906, he published “Studies in Word Association” and later sent a copy of this book to Sigmund Freud. They first met in person in Vienna in February 1907, and the two became fast friends. Jung later described his initial impressions of Freud as “…extremely intelligent, shrewd, and altogether remarkable.” They corresponded extensively over the next seven years, with Freud viewing Jung as protégé and heir to psychoanalysis.

As their friendship grew, Freud viewed Jung as the most innovative and original of his followers but was unhappy with Jung’s disagreement with some of the basic tenets of Freudian theory. Jung believed that Freud was too focused on sexuality as a motivating force. He also felt that Freud’s concept of the unconscious was limited and overly negative. Instead of simply being a reservoir of repressed thoughts and motivations, as Freud believed, Jung argued that the unconscious could also be a source of creativity. By 1912 their disagreements had become frequent and pronounced. When Jung resigned from the International Psychoanalytic Congress, the hostility growing between the two was readily apparent in the letters they exchanged. At one point, Jung scathingly wrote, “…your technique of treating your pupils like patients is a blunder. In that way you produce either slavish sons or impudent puppies… I am objective enough to see through your little trick.”

On January 3, 1913 the break between Freud and Jung was complete. Freud wrote a letter to Jung in which he makes clear :

“Your allegation that I treat my followers as patients is demonstrably untrue. . . . It is a convention among us analysts that none of us need feel ashamed of his own neurosis. But one [meaning Jung] who while behaving abnormally keeps shouting that he is normal gives ground for the suspicion that he lacks insight into his illness. Accordingly, I propose that we abandon our personal relations entirely.”

Sigmund Freud's letter of January 3, 1913 ending his relationship with Carl Jung

Sigmund Freud’s letter of January 3, 1913 ending his relationship with Carl Jung

Ocean Liner Sinks In Chesapeake Bay

In 1882 an ocean liner was built by the Dutch shipbuilder Nederlandse Stoomboot Mij. and christened the ZAANDAM I. It had 3 decks, 51 crew, 50 first and 424 third class passengers. It was sold in 1897 to Austro Americana Lines and renamed STYRIA then sold again in 1902 to the Luckenbach Co. and renamed JULIA LUCKENBACH.

On January 3, 1913 the JULIA LUCKENBACK was in Chesapeake Bay when a thick fog approached. Coming in the opposite direction was the steamship INDRAKUALA. Before entering the fog the INDRAKUALA saw the JULIA LUCKEBACH a mile or so ahead and heard her fog signals later. After the fog came on the JULIA LUCKEBACH changed her course to port to reach a safe place of anchorage to the westward of the channel and proceeded at an excessive speed on a flood tide. The INDRAKUALA, also traveling at an excessive speed, struck the JULIA LUCKENBACH which sank. The INDRAKUALA was able to save people aboard the stricken liner but 15 people died.

The sinking of the JULIA LUCKENBACH from MaritimeQuest :http://www.maritimequest.com/daily_event_archive/2012/01_jan/03_julia_luckenbach.htm

The JULIA LUCKENBACH

The JULIA LUCKENBACH

Newspaper photos and drawing of JULIA LUCKENBACH crewJanuary 3, 1913

Newspaper photos and drawing of JULIA LUCKENBACH crew
January 3, 1913

Postmarked January 3, 1913

Northfield, Birmingham
Great Britain

"All Birthday Joys"

“All Birthday Joys”

New Organization Fights For Woman Suffrage Amendment

The fight for the right of women to vote, Woman Suffrage, had made great strides in the November 1912 elections in the US.

http://100yearsagotoday.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/woman-suffrage-makes-great-advances-in-1912-election/

Alice Paul was born in Mt Laurel Township, New Jersey in January 1885. Upon graduating college she went to Great Britain to work with the Women’s Social and Political Union fighting for women’s rights in Britain. After being arrested at a demonstration, Paul met Lucy Burns, an American from Brooklyn, New York who had been attending graduate school in Germany before joining the women’s rights struggle with British activist Emeline Pankhurst. Paul and Burns both lamented on the inactivity and ineffective leadership of the American suffrage movement.

Paul and Burns returned to the US in 1912 and joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Paul was appointed Chairwoman of their Congressional Committee where they organize a suffrage parade for President Wilson’s inauguration. Both women wanted to push for a constitutional amendment but the leaders of the NAWSA did not think it practical and wanted to work on a state by state basis. for the times. Paul and Burns thought otherwise.

On January 2, 1913 Alice Paul and Lucy Burns started the Congressional Union of the National American Women Suffrage Association, a separate committee that focused on passing an amendment to the US Constitution granting women the right to vote. They plan to lobby congressmen and make sure president Wilson keeps his promises made to the suffrage movement during the election. The NAWSA leadership is wary of this new group.

Alice Paul

Alice Paul

Lucy Burns

Lucy Burns

 

New Comic Strip Debuts In New York

George McManus was born in St. Louis, Missouri in January 1884. After being sent home for drawing in class, his father brought him to the local newspaper for a job as an errand boy. It is there he drew his first comic strip ALMA AND OLIVER. In 1904 McManus moved to New York City where he worked for several publications and created the first American family strip, THE NEWLYWEDS about an elegant young couple and their baby Snookums. The popularity of the strip prompted The New York American to invite McManus to join their paper in 1912.

On January 2, 1913 MaManus introduced a new comic strip BRINGING UP FATHER. McManus was inspired by a musical comedy he saw as a child called “The Rising Generation” where a fat Irish-American bricklayer Martin McShayne becomes a wealthy contractor. His society-minded wife and daughter were ashamed of him and his lowbrow buddies prompting McShayne to sneak out to join his pals for poker. In BRINGING UP FATHER, an Irishman named Jiggs doesn’t understand why his ascension to wealth via the Irish Sweepstakes means he can’t hang out with his friends, and his nagging, social-climbing wife, Maggie.

Jiggs of BRINGING UP FATHER

Jiggs of BRINGING UP FATHER

Recorded January 2, 1913

John Francis Count McCormack was born in Athlone, Ireland in June 1884. He received vocal training at school and college. Conradh na Gaeilge(Gaelic League), an Irish cultural organization founded in 1893, started a music festival in 1897 called Feis Ceoil that promote Irish song and dancing. In 1903 McCormack won the coveted gold medal of the Dublin Feis Ceoil. He met writer James Joyce who was trying his hand at singing and encoraged him to compete in the 1904 Feis Ceoil. In 1905 McCormack traveled to Italy for training and made his operatic debut there in 1906. He returned to Great Britain and attained success as an operatic tenor. In 1909 he debut in the US and quickly became the most celebrated lyric tenor of his time thanks in part to the many records he made for Victor Talking Machine Company.

On January 2, 1913 John McCormack went into the Victor Recording studios in Camden, New Jersey and recorded the Irish ballad “Where The River Shannon Flows”.

“Where The River Shannon Flows” by John McCormack

Tenor John McCormack

Tenor John McCormack

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