100 Years Ago Today

A History Of Events And Happenings From Exactly One Hundred Years Ago

Archive for the month “June, 2012”

Democratic National Convention Struggles For Nomination

The Democratic National Convention meeting in Baltimore, Maryland is in the midst of the presidential nomination with the two contenders being Speaker of the House James “Champ” Clark of Missouri and governor of New Jersey Woodrow Wilson.

Two days ago, on the first ballot Clark received 440½ votes, New Wilson 324, Judson Harmon 148, Oscar Underwood 117½ and Thomas R. Marshall 31. 13 more ballots were taken without any candidate receiving the 2/3rds majority of delegates. Much politicking and backroom deals are taking place with former Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan emerging as a powerful figure.

Yesterday Clark moved closer to the Democratic nomination for President when a shift of New York’s votes gave him 556 of the 1,094 delegates more than all of the other candidates combined, but still short of the two-thirds (730) needed to win. Bryan, a progressive, detested New York’s Tammany Hall political machine which he had fought against along with Wall Street when he was championing “free silver” over the “gold standard”. In reaction to the backing of such a corrupt group of delegates, Bryan finally decides and urges all his supporters to back Wilson.

On June 30, 1912 after the 30th ballot Wilson edged ahead of Clark for the first time with 460 votes to 455 as the Iowa delegation swung its support to Wilson. On the next ballot Wilson’s lead was 475 1/2 to 446.

1912 Democratic National convention – Baltimore, Maryland
June 1912

Tornado Destroys Provincial Capital In Canada

Regina is the capital city of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada with a population of 30,000.

On June 30, 1912 green funnel clouds started to form 11 miles south of Regina. At 4:50pm a tornado touched down at traveled 7.5 miles through the heart of the city. Wind velocity was estimated to be 310 mph. “In just twenty minutes it completely leveled a number of houses, and caused other houses to explode as the pressure inside the structures rose when the tornado passed overhead.” It left a path of destruction from the southern residential area, the downtown business district, rail yards, warehouse district, and northern residential area. The tornado killed 28 and left 2,500 homeless.

Destroyed home in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
June 30, 1912

Telephone Newspaper Offered In Oregon

Prior to the invention of the telephone, devices for switching telegraph lines existed. Hungarian Tivadar Puskás built the first telephone exchange in 1877 while he was working for Thomas Edison. The concept of sending entertainment and news over telephone lines by subscription appeared soon afterwards. In 1881 at the 1881 Paris Electrical Exhibition Clément Ader had a listening room where people could hear performances from the Paris Grand Opera. Services were established called “Telephone Newspapers”.
The technical capabilities of the time were limited because amplifying and transmitting telephone signals over long distances was primitive so listeners had to wear headphones to receive the programs, and service areas were generally limited to a single city.

There was Thetarephone in Paris, France (1890), Telephon Hirmondo in Budapest, Hungary (1893), Electrophone in London, England (1895), L’Araldo Telefonico in Rome, Italy in 1910 and the Telephone Herald in Newark, New Jersey in 1911 :

http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=190826124287141&set=a.189903124379441.35396.189896404380113&type=3&theater

Some were one way services and others were a standard telephone connection where you could contact an operator and choose programming. Selections were not only news and music but outside programs such as live theater and church services. Telephones were still an expensive luxury so the subscribers tended to be the well-to-do. The service was sometimes offered in hotel lobbies through the use of coin-operated receivers. Some systems also accepted paid advertising.

On June 30, 1912 The OREGON SUNDAY JOURNAL and the SUNDAY OREGONIAN announced that the service would be introduced to Oregon. Programming is detailed and a list of hotels planning to offer the service is featured. It is available for five cents a day.

Telephone Herald advertisement
June 30, 1912

China’s First Prime Minister Resigns

The Xinhai Revolution in China began in October 1911. There had been unrest due to Imperial favoritism to Western investors over Chinese interests and several smaller revolts but when a bomb exploded accidentally that implicated Imperial Army officers in Wuchang, China rather than wait to be arrested, the officers started a rebellion that spiraled out of control and resulted in the downfall of the Manchus that had ruled China for 300 years. In January 1912 Dr. Sun Yat Sen is named the first president of the Republic of China.

Sun Yat Sen – 1912

A former Imperial general Yuan Shi Kai controlled the Imperial Army and became the chief negotiator between the Imperial throne and the rebellious forces in China. He becomes prime minister and works out a deal with Sun Yat Sen to share power.

Yuan Shi Kai – 1912

In February 1912 the Emperor abdicates and as previously agreed, Sun Yat Sen resigns and Yuan Shi Kai becomes president of the Chinese Republic.

Tang Shao Yi was educated at Queen’s College, Hong Kong and studied at Columbia University in New York. He was the first president of Shandong University, one of the oldest universities in China. He negotiated for Yuan Shi Kai with revolutionary leaders in Shanghai. Yuan made him the first prime minister of the Republic of China in March 1912. But yuan Shi Kai is more interested in consolidating power that establishing a democratic republic and Tang Shao Yi despairs at his blantant disregard for rule of law.

On June 29, 1912 it is formally announced that Tang Shao Yi has resigned as prime minister of the Republic of China. The reason given is that Tang Shao Yi has suffered a nervous breakdown. China’s Foreign Minister Lu Cheng-Hsiang will become the new Prime Minister of China.

Former prime minister of China Tang Shao Yi – 1912

Mug Shot

Mugshot Charles Mischke, 25830, San Francisco, June 29, 1912

Courtesy of LEAST WANTED: A Century of American Mugshots
Steven Kasher Gallery :http://www.stevenkasher.com/html/exhibresults.asp?exnum=591&exname=LEAST+WANTED%3A%3Cbr%3EA+Century+of+American+Mugshots

Charles Meschke
Booked June 29, 1912

Issued June 29, 1912

Louis Fancher was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1884. He studied with various artists and is an illustrator in San Francisco as well as in New York. Fancher illustrated this June 29, 1912 cover for July 4th showing a young patriot playing Gulliver to his toy British soldiers.

COLLIER’S
June 29, 1912

Harrison Fisher was born in Brooklyn, NYC but spent most of his youth in San Francisco until he turned 21 years old. He then moved back to New York where he began his highly successful career as a magazine illustrator. Harrison Fisher never married, but his “secretary,” Kate Clemens, was also his lifetime partner. Fisher’s portraits of women rival Charles Dana Gibson’s “Gibson Girl” for popularity at the time. One of Fisher’s favorite models who he helped make famous was Dorthy Gibson who survived the sinking of the RMS TITANIC.

Cover Girl Dorthy Gibson

A month after the tragedy, Gibson starred in a movie about the doomed liner.

https://100yearsagotoday.wordpress.com/2012/05/14/rms-titanic-film-released-starring-real-survivor/

On June 29, 1912 Fisher once again used Gibson for a SATURDAY EVENING POST cover.

Dorthy Gibson on the cover of THE SATURDAY EVENING POST
June 29, 1912

German Airship Destroyed

In the late 19th century, the development of airships and airplanes happened simultaneously. In July 1900 the launch of Luffschiff (Airship) Zeppelin #1 or LZ1 by Count Von Zeppelin began the most famous airships ever – zeppelins. Their rigid structure allowed for massive cargo space to carry freight or passengers. Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft (“German Airship Travel Corporation”) or DELAG is the world’s first airline using a Zeppelin rigid airship founded in November 1909 and operated airships manufactured by Luftschiffbau Zeppelin. Passenger service aboard the airship began in 1910 with routes from Frankfurt to Baden-Baden and Düsseldorf. A steward was introduced later and was responsible for the well-being of the passengers. They have carried thousands of passengers without a single injury. LZ 10 Schwaben was a German rigid airship built by Luftschiffbau Zeppelin in 1911 and operated by DELAG for passenger service. It is regarded as the first commercially successful passenger-carrying aircraft.

On June 28, 1912 LZ 10 Schwaben was at an airfield near Dusseldorf anchored outside the hangar as the strong winds had hampered efforts to take her in. Static electricity from the ship’s rubberized fabric gas cells caused a spark to ignite the hydrogen in one of her gas bags. In moments the entire ship had caught on fire and the remnants of its frame, the cabins, and engines that had not burned were destroyed upon collapsing to the ground. Depending on differing reports, up to 40 people were injured.

Wreckage of the LZ 10 Schwaben – June 28, 1912

LZ 10 Schwaben

Korean Christians Charged With Treason

Korea had been under the influence of Imperial China. The Japanese government initially sought to separate Korea from China and make Korea a Japanese satellite in order to further thecountry’s security and national interests. After the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894, Japan’s victory removed China control and allowed for Japanese influence. In October 1895, the Empress of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents. After Japan’s victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 the Taft-Katsura Agreement between the US and Japan recognized US interests in the Philippines and Japanese interests in Korea. Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate by the Eulsa Treaty. In June 1907 at the Peace Conference in the Hague, Korea tried to bring up their fears of Japanese colonization but were refused access to the public debates by the international delegates who questioned the legality of the protectorate convention. Out of despair, one of the Korean representatives committed suicide. August 1910, Japan effectively annexed Korea with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty

Christian missionary work in Korea dates from 1784 when Catholic preists arrived. In 1884 the American Presbyterian missionaries arrived in Korea. Christian protests caused considerable unrest and annoyance to the Japanese colonial regime. The “Million Souls for Christ Campaign” was successful in bringing about mass conversions to the Protestant religion. By 1910, 1% of the nation was Protestant.

On June 28, 1912 124 persons were arrested and charged with planning to kill the Japanese Governor-General. 98 are Christians. The Japanese see Christians as the single most established group capable of threatening their complete control of Korea.

Korean Catholics with French priests – 1912

Theodore Roosevelt As Bull Moose

Last week at the Republican National convention in Chicago, Illinois former President Theodore Roosevelt asked his supporters to leave the floor of the and reconvene in Chicago’s Orchestra Hall and endorsed the formation of a national progressive party, a third party to run against president William Howard Taft.. When asked by reporters if he were physically up to the task, Roosevelt replied, “I’m as fit as a Bull Moose.”

On June 28, 1912 the Chicago Day Book, a daily newspaper ran this political cartoon showing Roosevelt as the animal which he said he felt like. This is the first depiction of Roosevelt as a Bull Moose. His third party is called the Progressive Party.

The Chicago Day Book – June 28, 1912

Postmarked June 28, 1912

The SS Theodore Roosevelt is a passenger steamer built in 1906 at Toledo, Ohio by the Toledo Shipbuilding Company and operated commercially on Lake Michigan.

Steamer “Roosevelt” Michigan City, Ind.

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