In The Holy Land
Solomon’s Temple was built on the Temple Mount in the 10th century BCE and destroyed by the Babylonians in 5th century BCE. The Second Temple was completed and dedicated in the late 5th century BCE. In the early 1st century BCE Herod the Great began a massive expansion project on the Temple Mount including a retaining perimeter wall. Herod’s Temple was destroyed by the Roman Empire along with the rest of Jerusalem in 70. The western part of the retaining wall remained intact.
Throughout history Jews sought to worship near this visible remnant of the Temple called the Kotel, the Westrn Wall or the Wailing Wall, periodically encountering obstacles from Christian and Muslim rulers. Jews tried to buy houses nearby, and purchase the Wall itself but were never successful although allowed to still worship there. Faithful Jews maintain upkeep and helped pilgrims. In 1912 Jerusalem in under Ottoman rule and worship is still allowed.