The Albanian Revolt Ends
The Ottoman Empire is called “The Sick Man Of Europe”. It increasingly falls under the financial control of Europeans and has lost European territory in a series of disastrous wars. Nationalism has swept through many of its territories and the Ottoman government itself had struggled with attempts at a more Western constitutional style government as it had in 1876. The Second Constitutional Era began after the Young Turk Revolution in July 1908 with the restoration of the 1876 constitution and the reconvening of the Ottoman Parliament. Ottoman politics is now dominated by the Committee of Union and Progress and the reform movement known as the Young Turks. This begins the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The aging Sultan Mehmed V is put on the throne in April 1909 but he is largely a figurehead with no real political power.
In January 1912 the Albanian Revolt was declared in Montenegro. Albanian soldiers and officers deserted the Ottoman military service and joined the insurgents. They were supported by neighboring countries and the rebels took over most of the area around Kosovo, capturing the city of Skopje. They demanded a number of actions from Turkey which were printed in newspapers Bulgaria in March 1912. By August 1912 the demands had solidified and the rebel position had strengthened.
On September 4, 1912 the Ottoman government ended the Albanian Revolt by accepting all demands except the court martial of Ottoman officers who had fought against the rebels. The terms only covered Montenegro. This shows the weakness of the Ottoman Empire in Europe and encourages other Balkan states such as Thrace, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece to resist the Ottomans. But it also threatens the Christian minorities under Ottoman dominion who are not protected by these demands.