100 Years Ago Today

A History Of Events And Happenings From Exactly One Hundred Years Ago

Archive for the month “November, 2012”

Women’s Rights Triumph In Oregon

Woman’s Suffrage made great strides in the 1912 elections. .https://100yearsagotoday.wordpress.com/?s=Oregon+suffrage

In 1912 Oregon voters were asked to vote on the issue of woman suffrage for the sixth time. The National American Woman Suffrage Association took over and hosted parades, rallies, and public speeches. Woman suffrage leagues were created all over the state and suffragists began to argue increasingly that votes for women would lead to an improved moral condition for the state.By 1912 Oregon was surrounded by states which had won suffrage. Idaho (1896), Washington (1910), and California (1911). On November 5, 1912 the voters of Oregon approved a woman’s right to vote by amending the State Constitution Section 2 of Article 11.On November 30, 1912 Oregon made it official with the Proclamation of Woman’s Suffrage in Oregon :
http://library.uoregon.edu/ec/exhibits/feminist-voices/proclamation.htmlIt was signed by long-time Oregon suffragist Abigail Scott Duniway, age 79.
Abigail Scott Duniway signing the Proclamation of Woman's Suffrage as as Governor Oswald West watches November 30, 1912

Abigail Scott Duniway signing the Proclamation of Woman’s Suffrage as as Governor Oswald West watches
November 30, 1912

On the same day the new amendment was seen to be put in action when Hattie Corkett of Bend, Oregon became the first woman seated on a jury in Oregon. She is an “ardent suffragette” as her mother was the first woman admitted to the Bar in Minnesota, 1879.

Woman Suffrage Movement in Oregon by Jessica Bertling

https://www.wou.edu/las/socsci/history/Senior%20Seminar%20Thesis%20Papers%20HST%20499/2008/thesis%2008/Jessica%20Bertling.pdf

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Prison Transport In Florida

The 13th Amendment of the Constitution outlawed slavery but allows for penal labor as it states that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” This led to the “convict lease” system which became popular in the South in the late 19th century. State governments who could not afford penitentiaries and needed money could leased out prisoners to work for private individuals and companies. This brought about the “chain gang.” Tens of thousands of African-Americans were arbitrarily arrested and leased to coal mines, lumber camps, brickyards, railroads, quarries and farm plantations. Since the responsibility to provide food, clothing, shelter, and medical care for the prisoners was put upon the “employer,” extremely poor conditions, numerous deaths, and a system of near-slavery existed in the penal systems of the southern US.

On November 30, 1912 a photo of a cage used to transport prison labor was taken in Florida.
Prison labor transport cage used to transport convicts from camp to work on the road between DeLand and Daytona, Florida November 30, 1912

Prison labor transport cage used to transport convicts from camp to work on the road between DeLand and Daytona, Florida
November 30, 1912

Issued November 30, 1912

1A

New Western Released

The Motion Picture Patents Company is an entity created by Thomas Edison and established film producers on the east coast to file suit to confiscate unlicensed equipment, discontinue product supply to theaters which showed unlicensed films and effectively monopolized distribution and acquisition of all US film exchanges. Unlicensed and independent film production companies carried on business without submitting to the Edison monopoly by using illegal equipment and importing film stock to create their own underground market. The rebel film studios started looking elsewhere to avoid the Film Trust and have moved all the way across the country to California (where the nice weather allows a longer filming season) and opened studios is small southern California towns like Edendale and Hollywood.

There are 7 film production companies in Southern California and in November 1911 Thomas Ince, a Rhode Island native who has worked for Biograph, arrived and proceeded to revolutionize the film industry. He was the first to use a “shooting script” the blueprint to map out the entire movie-making process. He created the first modern movie studio in the Santa Monica mountains at Bison Ranch called Inceville. The Miller Brothers 101 Ranch Wild West Show provided cowboys, horses, oxen, Indians, wagons, everything needed to make the greatest Westerns ever for $25,000 per week. Ince didn’t take total control as director but managed teams of film-makers on several projects with who he shared credit whether he actually directed or not.

Francis X Feeney was born in Portland, Maine in 1881. After serving in the Spanish-American War he drifted into the budding film industry in New York. He adopted the surname “Ford” from the automobile. He started working in San Antonio, Texas for Star Film Company. From there Francis Ford began his Hollywood career working for Thomas Ince at Ince’s Bison studio, directing and appearing in westerns. He recently appeared in CUSTER’S LAST FIGHT as Custer.

https://100yearsagotoday.wordpress.com/2012/10/04/custers-last-fight-released/

On November 29, 1912 THE INVADERS was released, produced by Thomas Ince, directed by Ince and Ford and starring Francis Ford. The US Army and the Indians sign a peace treaty. However, a group of surveyors trespass on the Indians’ land and violate the treaty. The army refuses to listen to the Indians’ complaints, and the surveyors are killed by the Indians. A vicious Indian war ensues, culminating in an Indian attack on an army fort.

Scene from THE INVADERS
Francis Ford is the seated officer with the mustache

Fire Destroys College In Maryland

Maryland Agricultural College located in College Park, Maryland was chartered in 1856. The school became a state institution after the Civil War and reopened with 11 students in 1867. The college became a federally funded Agricultural Experiment Station in 1887.

On November 29, 1912 many students who had stayed at college for Thanksgiving attended the annual Thanksgiving Subscription dance. They invited local girls as their dates – there were not any female students attending the university.


The 1912 Thanksgiving Subscription Dance at Maryland Agricultural College
November 29, 1912

Shortly after the dancers posed for this photo a fire started in the building due to faulty electric wiring in the attic of the newest administration building, where the dance was being held. The 80 students on campus at the time evacuated themselves safely then formed a makeshift bucket brigade. Fanned by a strong southwest wind, the fire destroyed the barracks where the students were housed, all the school’s records, and most of the academic buildings on the College Park campus.

The Barracks at Maryland Agricultural College engulfed in flames  – November 29, 1912

 

 

 

Postmarked November 29, 1912

Mary Anne McIntosh writing to David Monroe Henderson while they were courting each other in the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming.

The Henderson family genealogy page :http://www.hendersonproject.net/Mary%20letters.html
Mr David Henderson
Burlington, Wyo.Basin, Wyoming
Nov. 29, 1912

Dear Dave,

It’s a good thing you didn’t turn round and come back, for I’m afraid I would have gone home whether I got a certificate or not.

I won’t be through until tomorrow morning but I’m going home and see the basketball game Saturday night. I’ll stay until after Mutual if you won’t be too tired after your trip to take me to Otto. I’m afraid you won’t feel much like doing it.

I had two Thanksgiving dinners yesterday. I was at Effie Gould’s for dinner and stayed all afternoon. Mrs Lou Blakesley invited me to her house for supper but I didn’t intent to go. Just as we were sitting down to supper, the Blakesley girls came after me so I had to go.

Well, I must quit or you won’t get this tonight.

As ever
Mary

Albania Declares Its Independence From Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire is called “The Sick Man Of Europe” because of it deteriorating control over its European possessions. Nationalism has swept through many of its territories and the Ottoman government itself had struggled with attempts at a more Western constitutional style government with the Young Turk Revolution in July 1908. This begins the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The aging Sultan Mehmed V is put on the throne in April 1909 but he is largely a figurehead with no real political power. The Young Turks in the Ottoman parliament put pressure on Ottoman Europe’s provinces by increasing taxes, forcing conscription in the Ottoman army and the disarming of civilian populations.

Between 1393 and 1501 the Ottoman Empire had incorporated the Albanian homeland into their dominion. After a suppressed uprising in Albania in June 1910, the Sultan visited Pristina and in June 1911 declared an amnesty. A number of concessions were suggested including establishment of Albanian schools, military service to be restricted to Albania, suspension of all conscription and taxes for 2 years and appointment of government officials who speak the Albanian language. By the end of 1911 Albanian members of Ottoman parliament requested additional rights for Albanians in cultural and administrative spheres. The next election in the Ottoman parliament was rigged and hardly any Albanian opposition members were seated in the new Chamber in Constantinople. Open rebellion against Ottoman authority began in Albania.

In January 1912 the Albanian Revolt was declared in Montenegro. Albanian soldiers and officers deserted the Ottoman military service and joined the insurgents. They were supported by neighboring countries and the rebels took over most of the area around Kosovo, capturing the city of Skopje. They demanded a number of actions from Turkey which were printed in newspapers Bulgaria in March 1912. By August 1912 the demands had solidified and the rebel position had strengthened.

In September 1912 the Ottoman government ended the Albanian Revolt by accepting all demands except the court martial of Ottoman officers who had fought against the rebels. The terms only covered Montenegro. This shows the weakness of the Ottoman Empire in Europe and encourages other Balkan states such as Thrace, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece to resist the Ottomans. This united defiance results in the outbreak of the Balkan War now being waged against the Ottoman Empire. The Albanian truce has held together and the Ottomans, already suffering military defeats in the Balkans, does not want to have Albanian nationals join in the war.

When the Ottoman forces abandoned Macedonia, Serbia stood to double in size and along with Montenegro gain access to the Adriatic Sea. Austria-Hungary felt threatened that not only would this give it neighbors increased power but cause nationalistic uprisings among it’s own Slavic population within it’s domain. This would put the Catholic Austria-Hungary in direct conflict with Russia who backed the Slavic Orthodox Christian nations. Austria-Hungary proposed that instead of letting Serbia and Montenegro expand to the sea both cities would be part of a new, independent nation of Albania.The members of the Balkan League fighting the Ottomans opposed this hoping to partition the lands in question among themselves.

On November 28, 1912 Albanian nationalist leader Ismail Qemal, an Ottoman civil servant who rose to the position of President of the Ottoman National Assembly in Istanbul in 1909, returned to Albania with Austro-Hungarian support and at the head of a swiftly convened national assembly declared Albanian independence in the town of Vlora. The chairman, Ismail Kemal Bey, stated that although they had always been faithful to the Ottoman Empire, the Albanians had never forgotten their own language and nationality. The declaration, in Albanian and Turkish read:

“In Vlora, on the 15th/28th of November. Following the speech made by the President, Ismail Kemal Bey, in which he spoke of the great perils facing Albania today, the delegates have all decided unanimously that Albania, as of today, should be on her own, free and independent.”

This signaled the end of almost 500 years of Ottoman rule in Albania. The leaders raised the flag on the balcony of the two-story building in Vlora where the Declaration of Independence had just been signed.

The flag of Albania

Troops Celebrate Thanksgiving In Kansas

The 15th Cavalry Regiment the US Army is one of the Expansion Units originally established for the Spanish American War, formed in 1901 at the Presidio of San Francisco, California. That year the 15th Cavalry embarked for the Philippines to face fierce combat in the Philippine jungles against the Moros. The Regiment’s next action was part of the Cuban Pacification from 1906 to 1909. In 1912 they were stationed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

On November 28, 1812 the 15th Calvary H troop gathered to celebrate Thanksgiving. Their mess hall is festooned with hundreds of yards of colored crepe paper streamers and the table is set with pies, a coconut cake, tortes, and what might be a congealed salad or aspic. Each soldier has a small glass of dark-colored liquid to his left (which might be wine or some sort of fruit juice) and dinner plates are turned upside down with soup bowls resting on top of them. Coffee mugs are down-turned and an apple has been placed on top of each mug. Huge stalks of celery spill out of gravy boats. A white-jacketed mess steward or cook stands at the back of the room.

Thanksgiving dinner
15th Calvary Troop H
November 28, 1912
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

Issued November 28, 1912

LIFE magazine – November 28, 1912
Debutantes Number

A shy young lady approaching a devil who is reading “Art of Flirtation.”

“The New Pupil” by F W Read

Postmarked November 28, 1912

In 1912 the US mails over 900,000,000 postcards a year. They cover a wide range of topics including racial subjects. This interesting image shows a white young matron giving a basket of Thanksgiving goodies to an old man in a tattered coat, a “mammy figure” and a young boy holding a raccoon. The basket contains a turkey, a pie, a bottle of wine, wrapped presents and what appear to be books. This image of “white benevolence” is probably quite different than what was experienced by African-Americans in the South at the time

Miss Maud Hewit
Crestwood, Kentucky
R # 21
Hello Maud & Myrtle
How are you all? We sure did have an awful nice time while at your house. Give my love to your Mother and Father and your other sis Bess and the little ones. When do you think you all will come down?
Hattie & Dan (?)
Crestwood, Kentucky is just NE of Louisville and lies very close to the Indiana boarder.

Thanksgiving Day In The South – 1912

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