100 Years Ago Today

A History Of Events And Happenings From Exactly One Hundred Years Ago

Archive for the category “Nature”

British Antarctic Expedition

Ernest Henry Shackleton is an Anglo-Irish explorer who has launched three previous British expeditions to the Antarctic. During the first expedition 1901–1904, he and his companions Scott and Wilson set a new southern record. During the second expedition 1907–1909 he and three companions established a new record only 97 geographical miles from the South Pole, the largest advance to the pole in exploration history. Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII on his return home from this expedition.

The ENDURANCE - August 1914

The ENDURANCE – August 1914

After the race to the South Pole was accomplished by Roald Amundsen in 1911, Shackleton turned his attention to the crossing of Antarctica from sea to sea, via the pole. Last year, he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. His ship, the ENDURANCE, departed from South Georgia for the Weddell Sea in December 1914, heading for Vahsel Bay. As the ship moves southward, ice has been encountered, which has slowed progress.

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On January 12, 1915 the ENDURANCE is waiting for the ice to clear and have ventured out to explore. Photographer Frank Hurley took this picture of navigating officer Hubert Hudson with young Emperor penguin chicks.

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Horse Show in New York

The Piping Rock Club is a country club in Locust Valley, New York. It has an 18-hole links-style golf course, tennis facilities include several indoor courts, clay courts and grass courts and a separate facility on Long Island Sound providing beach, pool and summer dining facilities for members. The just recently built a new clubhouse. For the past 10 years the Piping Rock Club has held a horse show.

On October 4, 1912 The 11th Annual Piping Rock Horse show took place with the best of New York society on hand. 50 classes of horses, over 1,000 entrants and great weather made it a spectacular event. Sheila Byrne, the daughter of New York City lawyer James Byrne, is riding “Cardiff” owned by Harvey Ladew a topiary and fox hunting enthusiast who created the Ladew Topiary Gardens in Maryland.

Sheila Byrne on “Cardiff”
Piping Rock Club
Locust Valley, New York
October 4, 1912

The US Plant Quarantine Act Signed Into Law

The Gypsy Moth was introduced into the United States in 1868 by a French scientist living in Massachusetts trying to make a caterpillar/silk worm hybrid that could resist diseases. When some of the moths escaped from his lab they found suitable habitat and started to multiply. Gypsy Moths attack many species of hardwood trees resulting in defoliation and the death of the tree. During outbreaks the sound of moths chewing and dropping excrement may be loud enough to sound like light to moderate rainfall. The first US outbreak occurred in 1889.

On August 20, 1912 The US Plant Quarantine Act was signed into law giving the federal government the power to regulate the importation and interstate shipment of plant products that might carry with them insects and diseases. The law was effective in curtailing the spread of the Gypsy Moth beyond the New England area.

Gypsy Moth and caterpillar

Cowboy Self Portrait In Washington

Lawrence Denny Lindsley was born in March 1878 at Lake Union, Washington near Seattle. He grew up as a woodsman and learned to hunt deer on the summit of Queen Anne Hill in Seattle. He discovered photography and love to capture images of Nature. He worked in the Esther mines near the Snoqualmie Pass building cabins, drilling and hammering, and packing out ore by horse. Lindsley became a charter member of the Mountaineers in 1907 and went to work for the W P Romans Photographic Studio in Seattle. He owned part interest in the studio when it was bought by Asahel Curtis in 1910 which led him to work with Edward Curtis the famous photographer of the “Indians of North America” series. In about 1912, Lindsley moved to his parents’ ranch along 25 Mile Creek at Lake Chelan.

On August 20, 1912 Lawrence Lindsley took a self-portrait of himself, his horse Peanut and his dog Bobble. “On long trips I would pick him up and let him ride with me in the saddle.”

Lawrence Lindsley Photograph database : http://content.lib.washington.edu/llweb/index.html

“Comrades”
photograph by Lawrence Lindsley
August 20, 1912

Canoeing Expedition In Canada

Ernest Carl Oberholtzer was born in Davenport, Iowa in 1884. He attended Harvard University and received a BA but after one year of graduate study in landscape architecture he left and made his first trip to the Minnesota-Ontario border lakes in 1906. In 1909 he made his first canoe voyage through primarily uncharted territory of the border lakes of Minnesota and Canada, traveling 3,000 miles that summer. Oberholtzer wrote a number of articles and short stories, some under the penname Ernest Carliowa.

In June 1912 Oberholtzer and Billy Magee, his Ojibwe canoeing partner, made a canoe voyage over 2,000 miles through Manitoba to Hudson Bay and back. They set off from end of the railroad line to explore rugged, unmapped territory. The journey made Oberholtzer a prominent spokesman in the wilderness conservation movement.

On July 27, 1912 he made this entry in his journal as they landed in the small town of Du Brochet, Manitoba:

Du Brochet, with its picketed cemetery and church and numerous clay-covered [colored] houses the south side of a sand ridge, looked a considerable village. On closer inspection, however, most of the buildings especially the Hudson Bay Company store which had a pair of caribou antlers on the gable, proved pretty dilapidated.

Supplies purchased at Du Brochet, Manitoba
4 pencils
4 lbs. beans, $1
10 lbs pork, $4
15 lbs hard tack, $3.75
5 lbs sugar, $1.25

We found an Indian encampment- the best one I have ever seen.

Excerpts from Oberholtzer’s journal, reprinted and recently published in :
Bound for the Barrens: Journal of the Ernest Oberholtzer & Bill Magee 2,000-mile Canoe Voyage to Hudson Bay in 1912 – Edited by Jean Sanford Replinger with Nancy Paddock

courtesy of The Ultimate Canoeing Guide.com :http://www.canoeing.com/nature/feature/oberholtzer.htm

Chipewya Indian camp, northern arm of Reindeer Lake
Manitoba, Canada
July 27, 1912

Letters For An Old Fashioned Dog

In December 1911 the magazine COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA ran an article titled “Who Is Breeding Old Fashioned Collies?” The article spoke of the difference between the modern sharp-nosed collie, a direct descendent of the Scotch shepherd dog, and the old fashioned broad-nosed breed. It generated many letters praising the intelligence and skill of the old fashioned breed.

On June 15, 1912 COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA ran these responses to the old fashioned collie article:

“He used to follow strangers into the house and sit near them and watch their every movement. He guarded the children, and would permit them to maul him about till they got too rough, when he would walk to another part of the room out of their reach. He was the most intelligent dog I ever saw, and had an affectionate nature very different from that of the sharp-nosed collie.”

“One day he was plowing, and after coming home he missed the dog. All the next day passed and the dog did not return. On the third day the farmer went in search of him, and in a field he found Shep guarding the coat which the farmer had hung on the fence when plowing, and had entirely forgotten. They had called the dog, who must have heard them, but he refused to leave his master’s coat. “It would have been of no use to send the hired man for the coat,” said the farmer, ” for the dog wouldn’t have let him touch it.”

Collie related articles from COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA :http://gsbisco.mysite.syr.edu/clife/cla.htm

The old fashioned collie

John Muir in California

John Muir was born in Dunbar, Scotland in 1838. His family emigrated to the US in 1849 starting a farm in Wisconsin. In 1860 Muir attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison where he took his first botany lesson. To avoid being drafted in the Civil War, he wandered the woods in Wisconsin making his way to Canada where he worked at a sawmill. In 1867 he was still working in lumber in the US when an accident almost blinded him. This changed Muir’s outlook on life profoundly : “This affliction has driven me to the sweet fields. God has to nearly kill us sometimes, to teach us lessons.” Muir then decided to walk 1,000 miles from Indiana to Florida seeking out the “wildest, leafiest, and least trodden way I could find.”

In 1868 Muir traveled to California immediately seeking out Yosemite valley. He was enthralled with the grandeur of this wilderness which would be his special place on earth for the rest of his life. He became an established figure in the valley and visiting scientists, celebrities and nature enthusiasts sought him out. Muir started reading Ralph Waldo Emerson who wrote about a life where one “returned to Nature.” In 1871 the two men met in Yosemite where Emerson offered Muir a professorship at Harvard but Muir thankfully declined preferring “God’s big show” to anything cities had to offer.

Muir worked with the associate editor of Century magazine, Robert Underwood Johnson, in conserving Yosemite and establishing a national park along the lines of Yellowstone National Park. In 1890 Yosemite was established as a California State park. In 1892 Muir along with Professor Henry Senger formed a club for mountain lovers, a ‘Sierra Club.’ In May 1892 the first meeting of the Sierra Club was held to write articles of incorporation. One week later Muir was elected president. In 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt visited Yosemite traveling by stagecoach into the park. Muir and Roosevelt ventured off by themselves and camped in the back country. In 1905 Congress transferred the Mariposa Grove and Yosemite Valley to federal control. In 1912 Muir is a noted and well-respected naturalist and nature activist. He led a loosing battle against the damming of Hetch-Hetchy valley as a reservoir. In 1908 a 295 acre virgin stand of redwoods in Marin County were established as Muir Woods National Monument.

On May 29, 1912 a photograph of Muir in Muir Woods National Monument was taken.

John Muir at Muir Woods National Monument – May 29, 1912

Photo: MAY 29, 1912

John Muir in California

John Muir was born in Dunbar, Scotland in 1838. His family emigrated to the US in 1849 starting a farm in Wisconsin. In 1860 Muir attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison where he took his first botany lesson. To avoid being drafted in the Civil War, he wandered the woods in Wisconsin making his way to Canada where he worked at a sawmill. In 1867 he was still working in lumber in the US when an accident almost blinded him. This changed Muir's outlook on life profoundly : "This affliction has driven me to the sweet fields. God has to nearly kill us sometimes, to teach us lessons." Muir then decided to walk 1,000 miles from Indiana to Florida seeking out the "wildest, leafiest, and least trodden way I could find." 

In 1868 Muir traveled to California immediately seeking out Yosemite valley. He was enthralled with the grandeur of this wilderness which would be his special place on earth for the rest of his life. He became an established figure in the valley and visiting scientists, celebrities and nature enthusiasts sought him out. Muir started reading Ralph Waldo Emerson who wrote about a life where one "returned to Nature." In 1871 the two men met in Yosemite where Emerson offered Muir a professorship at Harvard but Muir thankfully declined preferring "God's big show" to anything cities had to offer.

Muir worked with the associate editor of Century magazine, Robert Underwood Johnson, in conserving Yosemite and establishing a national park along the lines of Yellowstone National Park. In 1890 Yosemite was established as a California State park. In 1892 Muir along with Professor Henry Senger formed a club for mountain lovers, a 'Sierra Club.' In May 1892 the first meeting of the Sierra Club was held to write articles of incorporation. One week later Muir was elected president. In 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt visited Yosemite traveling by stagecoach into the park. Muir and Roosevelt ventured off by themselves and camped in the back country. In 1905 Congress transferred the Mariposa Grove and Yosemite Valley to federal control. In 1912 Muir is a noted and well-respected naturalist and nature activist. He led a loosing battle against the damming of Hetch-Hetchy valley as a reservoir. In 1908 a 295 acre virgin stand of redwoods in Marin County were established as Muir Woods National Monument.

On May 29, 1912 a photograph of Muir in Muir Woods National Monument was taken.

John Muir at Muir Woods National Monument - May 29, 1912

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